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Critique of higher education accessibility support 代写

    Critique of higher education accessibility support
    Critique of higher education accessibility support  代写
    Access to higher education is always a serious and difficult problem for those low socio-economic people.  Federal, government, and some institution have taken efforts to make supports or policies, in order to improve the accessibility or quality of higher education.  Through critical analyses, some programs or policies for achieving accessible higher education are not quite effective. 
     
    The World Bank (1994) illustrated how important the higher education is to the whole society, but the higher education was in crisis, especially for the lower socio-economic people (the World Bank, 1994, p.15-16).  To solve the higher education’s crisis, It agreed to diversify the relevant institutions which can serve the higher education, and their serving commissions (the World Bank, 1994, p.28-33).  Moreover, funding institutions should be clearly differentiated so that they could offer appropriate help to those in need.  Take the allocation of resources as example, the World Bank (1994) told the institutions that all the resources should be allocated efficiently to the people who need it (the World Bank, 1994, p.50-54).  And it also point out that the government had to recognize its role in helping higher education clearly so that it can work out a proper plan, practice the plan and supervise the behavior of public institutions (the World Bank, 1994, p.56-65).  Surprisingly, the World Bank (1994) showed the society what it should do for the higher education, instead of just offering advices to the other institution.  It proposed that the World Bank should learn itself from experience and conduct reforming and improvement plan (the World Bank, 1994, p.82-90).  The World Bank (1994) analyzed the whole situation concisely, and worked out a comprehensive plan accordingly.  Both the government and all the institution, including itself, should try hard to help the minority out of crisis.  Facing with this serious problem, the World Bank (1994) knew and understood what it could do. 
     Critique of higher education accessibility support  代写
    The DIANE Publishing Company (1995) wrote a letter to the Department of Education offering figures and research results in order to ask the Congress to restructure student aid for the low-income student.  In this letter, it suggested that loan aid would cause two big problems, including the increasing cost of colleges and the decreasing opportunities for low-income students to stay in colleges (The DIANE Publishing Company, 1995, p.4-5).  It was a concise and convincing analysis of bad influences caused by the loan aid.  After that, the company showed a statistic result of its research, which could prove that grants aid act more effectively than loan aid in decreasing the dropout rate of low-income students (The DIANE Publishing Company, 1995, p.7).  What is more, the later discussion of the financial aid directors and the interviews of specific students also fit the statistic result (The DIANE Publishing Company, 1995, p.8).  With the purpose of persuading the Congress to restructure the college aid, the company worked out and introduced a unique pilot frontloading program accordingly (The DIANE Publishing Company, 1995, p.9).  Besides, it tried to tell the implementation of this program and its own evaluation result (The DIANE Publishing Company, 1995, p.9).  Although this proposal letter was not agreed by the Department of Education at once ultimately, it was a completed and perfect suggestion that the officials appreciated this letter and approved its opinions (The DIANE Publishing Company, 1995, p.11).  If this proposal can give more suggestions to more practicing policies or programs for the low-income students, it would greatly improve the higher education. 
     
    Through figures and charts, Shaun and Frank (2012) suggested that a number of Black male undergraduates, who were considered to have challenges to achieve educational success, had poor conditions during the higher education in various colleges (Shaun and Frank, 2012, p.3).  In order to change this situation, institutions have worked out a few solutions to support the Black male students.   In Shaun and Frank’s (2012) words, institutions were trying to make the stakeholders concerned about the success of Black male undergraduates so that they would like to discuss how to make changes (Shaun and Frank, 2012, p.7).  They also concluded that what the institutions had done was still not enough for a great improvement in Black male success, and some necessary practices should be added (Shaun and Frank, 2012, p.11).  For example, they told the government that, funding which would support those Black male students from lower-income family had to be increased by more investment, and more budgets should be invested in programs or preparation in colleges (Shaun and Frank, 2012, p.11-12).  However, they had paid too much attention to the specific Black male students, a quite small part of the lower socio-economic people.  According to the charts showing in the article, American Indian and Asian American were also weak in college enrollments.  In some cases, the other people may suffer more difficulties than those Black male undergraduates, and they may need more support and help.  Therefore, all the policies and practices should try to cover more disadvantaged people in the society. 
    Critique of higher education accessibility support  代写
     
    In order to widen the access to higher education, Stuart (2013) illustrated a policy about special teachings for both physically and mentally disabled students in detail.  To begin with, the authors gave advice that the higher education should take some courses from abroad, and bought proper communication equipment for the disabled student, such as the deaf students (Stuart Powell, 2013, p.9-19).  Secondly, Stuart (2013) said that students with visual impairment, auditory impairment or the other physical disabilities should be supported so that they can also easily adapt to the higher education courses like some able person (Stuart Powell, 2013, p.30-50).  Besides, Stuart (2013) continued to offer advices in order to help students who had difficulties in learning, autism, Asperger’s syndrome or mental problems, or oversea students (Stuart Powell, 2013, p.61-81, p.93-106).  At the end of each chapter, he would briefly introduce the pedagogy, which could greatly produce an effect on students’ study, especially the disabled ones (Stuart Powell, 2013, p.50-58, p.90-92, and p.107-108).  The Stuart’s (2013) policy was so comprehensive that he almost concluded every aspect of the disabled students.  The author mainly practiced his ideas and suggestions through teaching and learning of the higher education. As a result, in his program, the colleges and relevant institutions have to make revolutions to adapt these special changes.  Compared with the help for students who had economic problems or faced racialism, Stuart’s (2013) policy is quite unique because he cared about the corner part of the lower socio-economic students in higher education. 
     
    In conclusion, there are different kinds of low socio-economic students who are desired for higher education.  The government, institutions, colleges, even the individuals, they should work out a good policy to help majority get the access to the higher education. 
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Critique of higher education accessibility support  代写

     
    References
     
    1.      DIANE Publishing Company, 1995, Higher Education: Restructuring Student Aid Could Reduce Low-Income Student Dropout Rate, DIANE Publishing,
    2.      Stuart Powell, 2013, Special Teaching in Higher Education: Successful Strategies for Access and Inclusion, Routledge, London.
    3.      Shaun R. Harper and Frank Harris, 2012, Men of Color [Online], Available at: http://www.ihep.org/assets/files/publications/a-f/(Report)_Black_Men_of_Color_November_2012.pdf (Accessed 27 July 2013)
    4.      The World Bank, 1994, Higher Education: the Lessons of Experience, JohnWiley & Sons, New York.
     
    Summary Table
    Article Conceptual or empirical and nature of research Methodological orientation Relation to higher education policy for lower socio-economic students
    1. DIANE Publishing
    Company (1995) AMR
    Empirical, with statistics research and interviews Highly Positivist
     
    Accepted uncritically
    2. Stuart Powell (2013) Conceptual and empirical Positivist Mostly Accepted from psychology
    3. Shaun R. Harper and Frank Harris (2012) AMR Conceptual, with statistics research Highly Positivist definitive formulation
    4. The World Bank (1994) AMR Conceptual positivist definitive formulation

    Critique of higher education accessibility support  代写